Next Generation Networking Systems Laboratory
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OPTICAL ARBITRARY WAVEFORM GENERATION ($9.5M DARPA OAWG project: with MIT, Multiplex, KTH, Inphi, and Inplane)

Extending upon the O-CDMA concept, it is possible to achieve ultra-high capacity all-optical arbitrary waveform generation covering an optical bandwidth of ~100 THz. Possible applications include ultra-wideband secure communications in phase and amplitude modulation, optical signal synthesis, ultra-high resolution remote sensing and LADARs. The new $9.5 M project awarded to MIT and UCDavis pursues ultrahigh capacity and precision optical arbitrary waveform generation. Fig 1 shows the schematic. Starting with a high-precision optical comb generator from MIT producing accurate optical comb lines from a stabilized mode locked laser, the optical arbitrary waveform generation encoder from UC Davis will modulate the phase and amplitude of each comb line. The modulation bandwidth of the phase and amplitude modulations will be equal to the comb spacing so that the arbitrary waveform generation covering the entire optical spectrum is possible. The optical arbitrary waveform generation device includes monolithically integrated amplitude and phase modulators and arrayed waveguide gratings. Fig 2 shows a layout with 32 channel * 40 GHz spacing for 1.28 THz optical arbitrary waveform generation on a monolithically integrated InP device. Efficient high-speed modulations on each spectral element on the InP waveguide requires careful RF-photonic design of phase and amplitude modulators with velocity and impedance matching. Future devices will include photonic crystal based optical comb generators and optical arbitrary waveform generators. Edit

Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation Methods

Simply put, optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) would be the generation of any optical waveform with a certain bandwidth without any other constraints. Several schemes exist to generate arbitrary waveforms. Those include direct time-domain modulation, Fourier domain synthesis, and a hybrid approach combining the time and frequency domain.
150 GHz Repetitive OAWG. Quadratic spectral phase waveform (a) Spectrum (b) Time-Domain (c) X-FROG (1)  Trace. Transform limited phase waveform (c) Spectrum (d) Time-Domain (e)X-FROG Trace (1) .

150 GHz Repetitive OAWG. Quadratic spectral phase waveform (a) Spectrum (b) Time-Domain (c) X-FROG(1) Trace. Transform limited phase waveform (c) Spectrum (d) Time-Domain (e)X-FROG Trace(1).

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10, 20, 40 GHz OAWG using Silica AWGs

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Publications



1. "Software Defined Elastic Optical Networking in Temporal, Spectral, Spatial Domains" by S. J. B. Yoo, Lei Liu, Roberto Proietti, and Ryan P. Scott, in Photonic Network Communications (Invited), Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 19-33, August, 2014.


2. "Improved Phase Matching by Paired-Fiber Coherent Matched Detection for Time-Frequency Domain Demultiplexing" by Takahide Sakamoto, Ryan P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Paper CTu2J.7, June, 2013.


3. "Experimental Demonstration of Adaptive Combinational QoT Failure Restoration in Elastic Optical Networks" by Xinran Cai, Ke Wen, Roberto Proietti, Yawei Yin, David J. Geisler, Ryan P. Scott, Chuan Qin, Loukas Paraschis, Ori Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 664-671, February, 2013.


4. "Rapid and Complete Hitless Defragmentation Method using a Coherent RX LO with Fast Wavelength Tracking in Elastic Optical Networks" by Roberto Proietti, Chuan Qin, Binbin Guan, Yawei Yin, Ryan P. Scott, Runxiang Yu, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optics Express, Vol. 20, No. 24, pp. 26958-26968, September, 2012.


5. "Dynamic Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation and Measurement to Increase the Flexibility, Fidelity and Bandwidth of Optical Networks" by Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, David J. Geisler, and S. J. B. Yoo , in International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP) (Invited), Paper ET1.5, July, 2012.


6. "Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement for telecommunications" by Nicolas K. Fontaine, David J. Geisler, Ryan P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Signal Processing in Photonic Communications (SPPCom) (Invited), Paper SpTu4A.1, June, 2012.


7. "Frequency-to-Time Assisted Interferometry for Full-Field Optical Waveform Measurements with Picosecond Resolution and Microsecond Record Lengths" by Ryan P. Scott, Nicolas K. Fontaine, David J. Geisler, and S. J. B. Yoo, in IEEE Photonics Journal, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 748-758, June, 2012.


8. "Coherent reception of 80 GBd QPSK using integrated spectral slice optical arbitrary waveform measurement " by Nicolas K. Fontaine, Takahide Sakamoto, David J. Geisler, Ryan P. Scott, Binbin Guan, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Invited), Paper CTh1H.1, May, 2012.


9. "Spread-Spectrum Chromatic Dispersion Monitoring Technique for Flexible Bandwidth Channels" by Xinran R. Cai, David J. Geisler, Roberto Proietti, Yawei Yin, Ryan P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Paper CF2I.2, May, 2012.


10. "Experimental Demonstration of Adaptive Combinational QoT Failure Restoration in Flexible Bandwidth Networks" by Xinran Cai, Ke Wen, Roberto Proietti, Yawei Yin, Ryan P. Scott, Chuan Qin, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (Postdeadline), Paper PDP5D.1, March, 2012.


11. "Terahertz Information and Signal Processing by RF-Photonics" by S. J. B. Yoo, Ryan P. Scott, David J. Geisler, Nicolas K. Fontaine, and Francisco M. Soares, in IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology (Invited), Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 167-176, March, 2012.


12. "Simultaneous and self-referenced amplitude and phase measurement of two frequency combs using multi-heterodyne spectroscopy" by Nicolas K. Fontaine, David J. Geisler, Ryan P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Paper OW1C.1, March, 2012.


13. "Elastic Optical Networking: A New Dawn for the Optical Layer?" by Ori Gerstel, Masahiko Jinno, Andrew Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, in IEEE Communications Magazine (Invited), Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. S12-S20, February, 2012.


14. "Demonstration of a Flexible Bandwidth Optical Transmitter/Receiver System Scalable to Terahertz Bandwidths" by David J. Geisler, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, in IEEE Photonics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 1013-1022, December, 2011.


15. "Experimental Demonstration of Flexible Bandwidth Networking With Real-Time Impairment Awareness" by David J. Geisler, Roberto Proietti, Yawei Yin, Ryan P. Scott, Xinran Cai, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Loukas Paraschis, Ori Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optics Express, Vol. 19, No. 26, pp. B736-B745, December, 2011.


16. "Monolithic InP 100-Channel × 10-GHz Device for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation" by F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in IEEE Photonics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 975-985, December, 2011.


17. "Flexible Bandwidth Terabit Coherent Optical Communication Networks by Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation and Measurement" by S. J. B. Yoo, in IEEE Photonics Society Newsletter, Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 5-12, October, 2011.


18. "Next-Generation Terabit Flexible-Bandwidth Networks based on Optical Arbitrary Generation and Measurements" by S. J. B. Yoo, in IEEE Photonics 2011 Conference (IPC11) (Invited), Paper WO5, October, 2011.


19. "The First Testbed Demonstration of a Flexible Bandwidth Network with a Real-Time Adaptive Control Plane" by David J. Geisler, Roberto Proietti, Yawei Yin, Ryan P. Scott, Xinran Cai, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Loukas Paraschis, Ori Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), Paper PDP TH.13.K.2, September, 2011.


20. "Flexible Bandwidth Arbitrary Modulation Format, Coherent Optical Transmission System Scalable to Terahertz BW" by David J. Geisler, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, Loukas Paraschis, Ori Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), Paper We.10.P1.49, September, 2011.


21. "Generation and Detection of Arbitrary Modulation Format, Coherent Optical Waveforms Scalable to a Terahertz" by David J. Geisler, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, Loukas Paraschis, Ori Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topicals 2011, Paper MC4.3, July, 2011.


22. "Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and detection in InP photonic integrated circuits for Tb/s optical communications" by Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optics Communications (Invited), Vol. 284, No. 15, pp. 3693-3705, July, 2011.


23. "One Million Time-Bandwidth Product Full-Field Waveform Measurement using Frequency-to-Time Interferometry" by Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, David J. Geisler, Tingting He, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Paper CTuH6, May, 2011.


24. "Bandwidth Scalable, Coherent Transmitter Based on Parallel Spectral Slice Waveform Generation" by David J. Geisler, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, Tingting He, Loukas Paraschis, Ori Gerstel, Jonathan P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo , in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Paper CThH1, May, 2011.


25. "Demonstration of Dynamic Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation with 5-ns Record Lengths and 33-ps Features" by Ryan P. Scott, Nicolas K. Fontaine, David J. Geisler, Tingting He, Jonathan P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Paper CWH5, May, 2011.


26. "Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on the parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices using optical arbitrary waveform generation" by David J. Geisler, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, Tingting He, Loukas Paraschis, Ori Gerstel, Jonathan P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optics Express, Vol. 19, No. 9, pp. 8252-8253, April, 2011.


27. "Flexible-Bandwidth, Impairment-Aware Transmitter Based on Parallel Synthesis of Optical Frequency Combs" by Tingting He, Ryan P. Scott, David J. Geisler, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ori Gerstel, Loukas Paraschis, Jonathan P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo , in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Paper OTuE4, March, 2011.


28. "Bandwidth Scalable, Coherent Transmitter Based on Parallel Synthesis of Multiple Spectral Slices" by David J. Geisler, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, Tingting He, Loukas Paraschis, Ori Gerstel, Jonathan P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Paper OTuE3, March, 2011.


29. "Flexible-Bandwidth and Format-Agile Networking Based on Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation and Wavelength Selective Switches" by Tingting He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in IEEE Photonics Society Annual Meeting, Paper MM6, November, 2010.


30. "Demonstration of High-Fidelity Dynamic Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation" by Nicolas K. Fontaine, David J. Geisler, Ryan P. Scott, Tingting He, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in IEEE Photonics Society Annual Meeting, Paper TuB4, November, 2010.


31. "Demonstration of High-Fidelity Dynamic Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation" by Nicolas K. Fontaine, David J. Geisler, Ryan P. Scott, Tingting He, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optics Express, Vol. 18, No. 22, pp. 22988-22995, October, 2010.


32. "Dynamic Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation and Measurement" by Ryan P. Scott, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Jonathan P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optics Express, Vol. 18, No. 18, pp. 18655-18670, August, 2010.


33. "Frequency-to-Time Assisted Interferometry for Polarization-Diversified, Single-Shot, Full-Field Waveform Measurement" by Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) Technical Digest, Paper CTUOO6, May, 2010.


34. "Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement" by Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, Linjie Zhou, Francisco M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Nature Photonics, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 248-254, April, 2010.


35. "Continuous, Real-Time, Full-Field Waveform Measurements via Spectral Slicing and Parallel Digital Coherent Detection" by Ryan P. Scott, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Linjie Zhou, Francisco Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Paper OWB7, March, 2010.


36. "Modulation-Format Agile, Reconfigurable Tb/s Transmitter Based on Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation" by David J. Geisler, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Tingting He, Ryan P. Scott, Loukas Paraschis, Jonathan P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optics Express, Vol. 17, No. 18, pp. 15911-15925, August, 2009.


37. "Near quantum-limited, single-shot coherent arbitrary optical waveform measurements" by Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, Jonathan P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optics Express, Vol. 17, No. 15, pp. 12332-12344, July, 2009.


38. "Near Quantum-Limited Single-Shot Full-Field Measurements of Arbitrarily Shaped Optical Waveforms" by N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2009), Paper CThDD7, June, 2009.


39. "10 GHz and 20 GHz Channel Spacing High-Resolution AWGs on InP" by J. H. Baek, F. M. Soares, W. Jiang, N. K. Fontaine, R. G. Broeke, J. Cao, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, and S. J. B. Yoo, in IEEE Photonic Technology Letters, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 298-300, March, 2009.


40. "Planar Regrowth Simplifies Photonic Integration of InP Chips" by S. J. B. Yoo, Sebastian Lurdudoss, and Won T. Tsang, in Compound Semiconductor, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 14-16, March, 2009.


41. "Modulation-Format Transparent Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation Based Optical-Label Switching Transmitter with All-Optical Label Extraction Using FBG" by Tingting He, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, David J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), Paper WU6, 2009.


42. "Dynamic Phase-Error Compensation for High-Resolution InP Arrayed-Waveguide Grating Using Electro-optic Effect" by W. Jiang, N. K. Fontaine, F. M. Soares, J. H. Baek, K. Okamoto, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss and S. J. B. Yoo, in Technical Digest of LEOS 2008, Paper MF2, November, 2008.


43. "Characterization of Dual-Electrode Mach-Zehnder Modulator Based Optical Frequency Comb Generator in Two Regimes" by N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, S. J. B. Yoo and T. Sakamoto, in IEEE Lasers and Electro Optics Society Annual Meeting, (IEEE LEOS 2008), pp. 186-187, Paper ThQ3, November, 2008.


44. "360 Gb/s Data Modulation with Dispersion Precompensation Using Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation" by D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, in The 21st Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS 2008), pp. 822-823, Paper ThQ3, November, 2008.


45. "Active Arrayed-Waveguide Grating with Amplitude and Phase Control for Arbitrary Filter Generation and High-Order Dispersion Compensation" by N. K. Fontaine, Jie Yang, Wei Jiang, D. J. Geisler, K. Okamoto, Ray Huang, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Technical Digest of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC'08), Brussels, Belgium. (2008), Paper Mo.4.C.3, September, 2008.


46. "Microwave Velocity and Impedance Tuning of Traveling-wave Modulator using Ion Implantation for Monolithic Integrated Photonic Systems" by Sang-Woo Seo, John Yan, Jong-Hwa Baek, Francisco M. Soares, Ronald Broeke, Anh-Vu Pham, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 50, No. 8, pp. 2151-2155, August, 2008.


47. "Compact 10 GHz Loopback Arrayed-Waveguide Grating for High-Fidelity Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation" by N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optics Letters, Vol. 33, No. 15, pp. 1714-1716, August, 2008.


48. "Rapid Updating of Optical Arbitrary Waveforms via Time-domain Multiplexing" by R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optics Letters, Vol. 33, No. 10, pp. 1068-1070, May, 2008.


49. "High-Resolution, Loop-Back AWG for Compact, High-Fidelity, Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation" by N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, F. M. Soares, A. Karalar, J. Yang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Technical Digest of IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Paper OTuC7, February, 2008.


50. "Sinusoidal phase modulation as a gate for FROG" by N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2007), Paper CFF5, May, 2007.


51. "3.5-THz Wide, 175 Mode Optical Comb Source" by R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC 2007), Paper OWJ3, March, 2007.


52. " Monolithically Integrated InP Photonic Micro Systems on a Chip for O-CDMA and OAWG Applications" by S. W. Seo, F. M. Soares, J. H. Baek, W. Jiang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. Yan, R. G. Broeke, J. Cao, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, A. H. Pham, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Technical Digest of IEEE/OSA Photonics in Switching 2007, Paper TuP14, 2007.


53. "Complete characterization of precise line-by-line optical arbitrary waveform generation with XFROG" by N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Technical Digest of ECOC'06, September, 2006.



1. XFROG

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